Diamine Oxidase Enzyme

Diamine Oxidase Enzyme

Diamine Oxidase Enzyme

Diamine Oxidase Enzyme (DAOs) are widely distributed enzymes that act on many aliphatic compounds. These enzymes have been found in many eukaryotes and prokaryotes, including yeast, pea seedlings, and lentil. Some DAOs have been crystallized from bacteria and pea seedlings, and several of them have been purified to homogeneity from plant materials. DAOs are primarily active on short aliphatic diamines, such as those found in pea seedlings.

Diamine Oxidase Enzyme

Diamine oxidase

Bio-Research Products has created a plant-based Diamine Oxidase enzyme, which reacts with histamines and other markers of early spoilage. This enzyme is now available as a food-grade powder, and a liquid form is in development. The enzyme has numerous food and health product applications, including digestive supplements. It can also be used to treat headaches, gastrointestinal disorders, and general muscular pain.

This enzyme is found in the kidney, the thymus, and the intestine in the digestive system. It inactivates histamine by removing the amino group, regulating functions in the digestive, nervous, and immune systems. However, excessive levels of this enzyme may cause allergic reactions and other diseases. Therefore, it is important to maintain the enzyme’s activity to prevent a response.

The diamine oxidase enzyme is responsible for degrading histamine, a naturally occurring substance found in all foods. Under normal conditions, the body metabolizes histamine but doesn’t eliminate it. When the enzyme is deficient, the histamine is stored in the body, causing various disorders, including migraine and other migraine symptoms.

Symptoms of histamine intolerance

Some medical professionals may have a hard time diagnosing histamine intolerance because the symptoms of histamine intolerance can affect so many parts of the body and overlap with symptoms of other conditions. The most common symptoms are gastrointestinal. While almost all foods contain some histamine, the amount increases as they age and spoil. However, some foods may contain compounds that help release histamine or block the DAO enzyme.

Some individuals may experience the symptoms of histamine intolerance because they are prone to digestive problems. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), celiac disease, or SIBO increase the risk of developing histamine intolerance. Additionally, certain foods may trigger the symptoms. Although the symptoms mimic those of food allergies, they are completely different. Moreover, skin allergy tests will come up negative for histamine intolerance.

The role of the tRNA Activating Enzymes in Protein Synthesis

To test the food for histamine intolerance, individuals can gradually introduce foods containing high histamine levels. They should begin by adding one new food to their diet each day. This diet can be difficult for individuals with limited diets, so it is important to get professional assistance when following the diet. Moreover, a health care provider can help you decide whether you are tolerant of a particular food or not.

Dietary changes

Studies have shown that Omega-9 fatty acids are beneficial in preventing dietary changes due to DAO enzyme deficiency. These are monounsaturated fats that are the primary source of oleic acid. Studies have also shown that olive oil may increase DAO enzyme release by 500%. Eating a Mediterranean-style diet is beneficial, as are macadamia nuts, which may prevent DAO deficiency.

The availability of endogenous DAO enzyme may be diminished due to various factors, including alcohol and drugs that inhibit this enzyme, malnutrition resulting in vitamin B-6 deficiency, and genetic predisposition. People with intolerance to this enzyme may try to limit their intake of typical foods containing histamines, such as ripened cheese, sausage, and wine. Typically, a low-histamine diet will relieve histamine intolerance and associated symptoms.

Medications that block or reduce the activity of DAO

A copper deficiency can cause a low DAO activity level. Copper is a central atom in DAO and is needed to function properly. Therefore, patients with low DAO activity should be monitored for copper levels to prevent further DAO decline. Some of these drugs contain zinc, inhibiting copper absorption in the intestines. A diet high in these nutrients is beneficial for people with histamine intolerance.

Medications that block or reduce DAO enzyme activity and levels may help minimize histamine in people with high grades. However, they may have side effects. Drugs that block or reduce the movement of the DAO enzyme may reduce histamine in the body and cause other negative effects. These medications may also cause a rash on the skin and lead to vulvovaginal and urinary tract symptoms.

Medications that block or reduce the activity and production of DAO enzymes have several uses. DAO enzyme activity may be a biomarker of colonic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases. In addition, reduced DAO activity has increased the risk of colon cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis. Some studies suggest that decreased DAO activity is a biomarker of colonic inflammation and Crohn’s disease.


The genetics of the DAO enzyme has uncovered a wide range of differences. The DAO gene sequence contains 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 17 are located in exons. Of these, seven produce substitutions of amino acids, resulting in changes in the enzyme’s metabolic capacity. Here, we review previous genetic studies of the DAO gene.

One of the main causes of histamine intolerance is a defective DAO enzyme. While some people do produce a sufficient quantity of DAO, some individuals experience a heightened response to foods containing histamine. The enzyme’s function is to metabolize the histamine in the body. Having a dirty DAO gene makes a person more susceptible to histamine-containing foods. This increased histamine in the bloodstream may contribute to redness in the face after eating, headaches, and excessive sweating. To clean the gene, people with a dirty DAO gene should limit wine and other aged and fermented foods.

The DAO enzyme is produced by a gene called AOC1. When an alteration occurs in the AOC1 gene, the DAO protein has an abnormal structure and lacks the enzyme’s function. However, the production of DAO enzyme is normal in those with an AOC1 gene variant, and those with abnormal DAO enzyme production are at a higher risk of developing DAO deficiency. Another genetic variant, called p.T16Met, has been associated with increased sensitivity to NSAIDs, which inhibit the DAO enzyme’s activity.

Low-histamine foods

If you suffer from histamine intolerance, it is important to consider some lifestyle changes. Try to reduce your stress levels and explore exercise options. Consult your doctor to determine the best approach for you. Consult a nutritionist if you are not sure if a low-histamine diet is right for you. Low-histamine diets may be beneficial for some people. However, for others, they may not be a good option.

Dietitians can provide individualized advice to patients with histamine intolerance and support those seeking long-term covid. Dietitians are the only health care professionals regulated by law and ethical code. In the absence of sufficient evidence, the Food Allergy Specialist Group of the British Dietetic Association (BDA) has developed guidelines for dietitians. The BDA has encouraged dietitians to be supportive of low-histamine diet trials.

Besides foods high in histamine, alcohol also contains biogenic amines. The biogenic amines can saturate the enzymes that break down histamine, causing it to become toxic. Alcoholic beverages are known to block the DAO enzyme. Listed below is a list of foods that contribute to the accumulation of histamine. While these foods can help alleviate migraine symptoms, they do not replace a balanced diet and should be consulted with a registered dietitian before starting any new diet.

Dietary factors

Dietary factors that affect DAO enzyme activity are varied, but several key nutritional factors may influence DAO activity. Consuming clean proteins, such as organic proteins and seafood, may increase the amount of DAO enzyme in the body. Additionally, eating whole foods is essential for proper digestion. It is recommended to avoid processed foods and avoid chemicals that may disrupt the natural balance of your digestive system. Eating naturally is also beneficial for DAO.

A DAO deficiency can occur in several ways, including poor digestion, nutrient deficiency, or factors. Lack of DAO may result in various symptoms, including headaches, gastrointestinal disorders, and dermatological disorders. However, genetic and pathological factors may also play a role in developing histamine intolerance.

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